Capital expenditures

Total capital expenditures for property, plant and equipment and intangible assets (excluding intangibles acquired through business combinations) amounted to $949 million, $831 million, $876 million in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. In 2017, 2016 and 2015, capital expenditures were 14 percent, 27 percent and 24 percent lower, respectively, than depreciation and amortization. Excluding acquisition-related amortization, capital expenditures were 13 percent higher, 3 percent lower and 3 percent higher, respectively, than depreciation and amortization.

Capital expenditures in 2017 remained at a significant level in mature markets, reflecting the geographic distribution of our existing production facilities. Capital expenditures in Europe and North America in 2017 were driven primarily by upgrades and maintenance of existing production facilities, mainly in the U.S., Sweden, Switzerland, Italy and Germany. Capital expenditures in emerging markets were highest in China, Poland and India. Capital expenditures in emerging markets were made primarily to increase production capacity by investing in new or expanded facilities. The share of emerging markets capital expenditures as a percentage of total capital expenditures in 2017, 2016 and 2015 was 31 percent, 35 percent and 31 percent, respectively.

At December 31, 2017, construction in progress for property, plant and equipment was $700 million, mainly in China, the U.S., Sweden, Switzerland and Germany. At December 31, 2016, construction in progress for property, plant and equipment was $515 million, mainly in the U.S., China, Sweden, Switzerland and Germany while at December 31, 2015, construction in progress for property, plant and equipment was $559 million, mainly in Sweden, the U.S., China, Switzerland and Germany.

Our capital expenditures relate primarily to property, plant and equipment. For 2018, we estimate the expenditures for property, plant and equipment will be higher than our annual depreciation and amortization charge, excluding acquisition-related amortization.